Luz is a high-level API for Torch that aims to encapsulate the training loop into a set of reusable pieces of code. Luz reduces the boilerplate code required to train a model with Torch and avoids the error prone zero_grad() - backward() - step() sequence of calls and moving data and models between CPU’s and GPU’s. Luz is designed to be highly flexible by providing a layered API that allows it to be useful no matter the level of control your need for your training loop.

Luz is heavily inspired by other higher level frameworks for deep learning, to cite a few:

  • FastAI: we are heavily inspired in the FastAI library, specially the Learner object and the callbacks API.

  • Keras: We are also heavily inspired by Keras, specially callback names, the lightning module interface is similar to compile too.

  • PyTorch Lightning: The idea of the luz_module being a subclass of nn_module is inspired in the LightningModule object in lightning.

  • HuggingFace Accelerate: The internal device placement API is heavily inspired in Accelerate, but much more modest in features. Currenly only CPU and Single GPU are supported.

Training a nn_module

Luz tries to reuse as much as possible the existing structures in Torch. For example, a model in Luz is the defined identically as you would define if using raw Torch. For example, this is the definition of a feedforward CNN that can be used to classify digits from the MNIST dataset.

net <- nn_module(
  "Net",
  initialize = function(num_class) {
    self$conv1 <- nn_conv2d(1, 32, 3, 1)
    self$conv2 <- nn_conv2d(32, 64, 3, 1)
    self$dropout1 <- nn_dropout2d(0.25)
    self$dropout2 <- nn_dropout2d(0.5)
    self$fc1 <- nn_linear(9216, 128)
    self$fc2 <- nn_linear(128, num_class)
  },
  forward = function(x) {
    x <- self$conv1(x)
    x <- nnf_relu(x)
    x <- self$conv2(x)
    x <- nnf_relu(x)
    x <- nnf_max_pool2d(x, 2)
    x <- self$dropout1(x)
    x <- torch_flatten(x, start_dim = 2)
    x <- self$fc1(x)
    x <- nnf_relu(x)
    x <- self$dropout2(x)
    x <- self$fc2(x)
    x
  }
)

We can now train this model in the train_dl and validate it in the test_dl torch::dataloaders() with:

fitted <- net %>%
  setup(
    loss = nn_cross_entropy_loss(),
    optimizer = optim_adam,
    metrics = list(
      luz_metric_accuracy
    )
  ) %>%
  set_hprams(num_class = 10) %>% 
  set_opt_hparams(lr = 0.003) %>% 
  fit(train_dl, epochs = 10, valid_data = test_dl)

Let’s understand what happens in this chunk of code:

  1. The setup function allows you to configure the loss (objective) function and the optimizer that you will use to train your model. Optionally you can pass a list of metrics that are tracked during the training procedure. Note: the loss function can be any function taking input and target tensors and returning a scalar tensor value and the optimizer can be any core Torch optimizer or custom ones created with the torch::optimizer() function.
  2. The set_hparams() function allows you to set hyper-parameters that should be passed to the module initialize() method. For example in this case we pass num_classes = 10.
  3. The set_opt_hparams() function allows you to pass hyper-parameters that are used by the optimizer function. For example, optim_adam() can take the lr parameter specifying the learning rate and we specify it with lr = 0.003.
  4. The fit method will take the model specification provided by setup() and run the training procedure using the specified training and validation torch::dataloaders() as well as the number of epochs. Note: we again reuse core Torch data structures, instead of providing our own data loading functionality.
  5. The returned object fitted contains the trained model as well as the record of metrics and losses produced during training. It can also be used for producing predictions and for evaluating the trained model in other datasets.

When fitting, Luz will use the fastest possible accelerator, ie. if a CUDA capable GPU is available it will be used otherwise we fallback to the CPU. It also automatically moves data, optimizers and models to the selected device so you don’t need to handle it manually - which is in general very error prone.

To create predictions from the trained model you can use the predict method:

predictions <- predict(fitted, test_dl)

The training loop

You now have a general idea of how to use the fit function and now it’s important to have an overview of what’s happening inside it. In pseudocode, here’s what fit does. This is not fully detailed but should help you to build your intuition:

# -> Initialize objects: model, optimizers.
# -> Select fitting device.
# -> Move data, model, optimizers to the selected device.
# -> Start training
for (epoch in 1:epochs) {
  # -> Training procedure
  for (batch in train_dl) {
    # -> Calculate model `forward` method.
    # -> Calulate the loss
    # -> Update weights
    # -> Update metrics and tracking loss
  }
  # -> Validation procedure
  for (batch in valid_dl) {
    # -> Calculate model `forward` method.
    # -> Calulate the loss
    # -> Update metrics and tracking loss
  }
}
# -> End training

Metrics

One of the most important parts in machine learning projects is choosing the evaluation metric. Luz allows tracking many different metrics during training with minimal code changes.

In order to track metrics, you only need to modify the metrics parameter in the setup function:

fitted <- net %>%
  setup(
    ...
    metrics = list(
      luz_metric_accuracy
    )
  ) %>%
  fit(...)

Luz provides implementations of a few of the most used metrics. If a metric is not available you can always implement a new one using the luz_metric function.

In order to implement a new luz_metric we need to implement 3 methods:

  • initialize: defines the metric initial state. This function is called for each epoch for both training and validation loops.

  • update: updates the metric internal state. This function is called at every training and validation step with the predictions obtained by the model and the target values obtained from the dataloader.

  • compute: uses the internal state to compute metric values. This function is called whenever we need to obtain the current metric value. Eg, it’s called every training step for metrics displayed in the progress bar, but only called once per epoch to record it’s value when the progress bar is not displayed.

Optionally, you can implement a abbrev field that gives the metric an abbreviation that will be used when displaying metric information in the console or tracking record. If no abbrev is passed, the class name will be used.

Let’s take a look at the implementation of luz_metric_accuracy so you can see how to implement a new one:

luz_metric_accuracy <- luz_metric(
  # An abbreviation to be shown in progress bars, or 
  # when printing progress
  abbrev = "Acc", 
  # Initial setup for the metric. Metrics are initialized
  # every epoch, for both training and validation
  initialize = function() {
    self$correct <- 0
    self$total <- 0
  },
  # Run at every training or validation step and updates
  # the internal state. The update function takes `preds`
  # and `target` as parameters.
  update = function(preds, target) {
    pred <- torch::torch_argmax(preds, dim = 2)
    self$correct <- self$correct + (pred == target)$
      to(dtype = torch::torch_float())$
      sum()$
      item()
    self$total <- self$total + pred$numel()
  },
  # Use the internal state to query the metric value
  compute = function() {
    self$correct/self$total
  }
)

Note: It’s good practice that the compute metric returns regular R values instead of torch tensors and other parts of luz will expect that.

Evaluate

Once a model has been trained you might want to evaluate its performance in a different dataset. For that reason, luz provides the ?evaluate function that takes a fitted model and a dataset and computes the metrics attached to the model.

Evaluate returns a luz_module_evaluation object that you can query for metrics using the get_metrics function or simply print to see the results.

For example:

evaluation <- fitted %>% evaluate(data = valid_dl)
metrics <- get_metrics(evaluation)
print(evaluation)
#> A `luz_module_evaluation`
#> ── Results ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
#> loss: 1.8892
#> mae: 1.0522
#> mse: 1.645
#> rmse: 1.2826

Customizing with callbacks

Luz provides different ways to customize the training progress depending on the level of control you need in the training loop. The fastest way and the more ‘reusable’, in the sense that you can create training modification that can be used in many different situations is via callbacks.

The training loop in Luz has many breakpoints that can call arbitrary R functions. This functionality allows you to customize the training process without having to modify the general training logic.

Luz implements 3 default callbacks that occur in every training procedure:

  • train-eval callback: Set’s the model in train() and eval() depending on if the procedure is doing training or validation.

  • metrics callback: evaluate metrics during training and validation process.

  • progress callback: implements a progress bar and prints progress information during training.

You can also implement custom callbacks that modify or act specifically for your training procedure. For example:

Let’s implement a callback that prints ‘Iteration n’ (where n is the iteration number) for every batch in the training set and ‘Done’ when an epoch is finished. For that task we use the luz_callback function:

print_callback <- luz_callback(
  name = "print_callback",
  initialize = function(message) {
    self$message <- message
  },
  on_train_batch_end = function() {
    cat("Iteration ", ctx$iter, "\n")
  },
  on_epoch_end = function() {
    cat(self$message, "\n")
  }
)

luz_callback() takes a named list of function as argument where the name indicate the moment at which the callback should be called. For instance on_train_batch_end() is called for every batch at the end of the training procedure and on_epoch() end is called at the end of every epoch.

The returned value of luz_callback() is a function that initializes an instance of the callback. Callbacks can have initialization parameters, like the name of a file you want to log the results, in this case, you can pass an initialize method when creating the callback definition and save these parameters to the self object. In the above example, the callback has a message parameter that is printed at the end of each epoch.

Once a callback is defined it can be passed to the fit function via the callbacks parameter, eg:

fitted <- net %>%
  setup(...) %>%
  fit(..., callbacks = list(
    print_callback(message = "Done!")
  ))

Callbacks can be called in many different positions of the training loop, including a combinations of them. Here’s an overview of possible callback breakpoints:

Start Fit
   - on_fit_begin
  Start Epoch Loop
     - on_epoch_begin
    Start Train
       - on_train_begin
      Start Batch Loop
         - on_train_batch_begin
          Start Default Training Step
            - on_train_batch_after_pred
            - on_train_batch_after_loss
            - on_train_batch_before_backward
            - on_train_batch_before_step
            - on_train_batch_after_step
          End Default Training Step:
         - on_train_batch_end
      End Batch Loop
       - on_train_end
    End Train
    Start Valid
       - on_valid_begin
      Start Batch Loop
         - on_valid_batch_begin
          Start Default Validation Step
            - on_valid_batch_after_pred
            - on_valid_batch_after_loss
          End Default Validation Step
         - on_valid_batch_end
      End Batch Loop
       - on_valid_end
    End Valid
      - on_epoch_end
  End Epoch Loop
   - on_fit_end
End Fit

Every step market with a on_* is a point in the training procedure that is available for callbacks to be called.

The other important part of callbacks is the ctx (context) object. See help("ctx") for details.

By default, callbacks are called in the same order as they were passed to fit (predict or evaluate) but you can provide a weight attribute that will control the order that it will be called. For example if a callback has weight = 10 and the other has weigth = 1 then the first one is called after the second one. Callbacks that don’t specify a weight attribute are considered weight = 0. A few buillt-in callbacks in luz already provide a weith value, for example the ?luz_early_stopping_callback, since in general we want to run it as the last thing in the loop.

The ctx object is used in luz to share information between the training loop and callbacks, model methods and metrics. The table below describes information available in the ctx by default. Other callbacks could potentially modify these attributes or add new ones.

Context attributes
Attribute Description
verbose The value (TRUE or FALSE) attributed to the verbose argument in fit .
accelerator Accelerator object used to query the correct device to place models, data, and etc. It assumes the value passed to the accelerator parameter in fit.
model Initialized nn_module object that will be trained during the fit procedure.
optimizers A named list of optimizers used during training.
data Current in use dataloader. When training it’s ctx$train_data, when doing validation its ctx$valid_data. It can also be the prediction dataset when in predict.
train_data Dataloader passed to the data argument in fit. Modified to yield data in the selected device.
valid_data Dataloader passed to the valid_data argument in fit. Modified to yield data in the selected device.
min_epochs | Minimum number of epochs the model will be trained for.
max_epochs | Maximum number of epochs the model will be trained for.
epoch Current training epoch.
iter Current training iteration. It’s reset every epoch and when going from training to validation.
training Whether the model is in training or validation mode. See also help("luz_callback_train_valid")
callbacks List of callbacks that will be called during the training procedure. It’s the union of the list passed to the callbacks parameter and the default callbacks.
step Closure that will be used to do one step of the model. It’s used for both training and validation. Takes no argument, but can access the ctx object.
call_callbacks Call callbacks by name. For example call_callbacks("on_train_begin") will call all callbacks that provide methods for this point.
batch Last batch obtained by the dataloader. A batch is a list() with 2 elements, one that is used as input and the other as target.
input First element of the last batch obtained by the current dataloader.
target Second element of the last batch obtained by the current dataloader.
pred Last predictions obtained by ctx$model$forward . Note: can be potentially modified by previously ran callbacks. Also note that this might not be available if you used a custom training step.
loss Last computed loss from the model. Note: this might not be available if you modified the training or validation step.
opt Current optimizer, ie. optimizer that will be used to do the next step to update parameters.
opt_nm Current optimizer name. By default it’s opt , but can change if your model uses more than one optimizer depending on the set of parameters being optimized.
metrics list() with current metric object that are updated at every on_train_batch_end() or on_valid_batch_end(). See also help("luz_callback_metrics")
records list() recording metric values for training and validation for each epoch. See also help("luz_callback_metrics") . Also records profiling metrics. See help("luz_callback_profile") for more information.
handlers A named list() of handlers that is passed to rlang::with_handlers() during the training loop and can be used to handle errors or conditions that might be raised by other callbacks.

Attributes in ctx can be used to produce the desired behavior of callbacks. At any time you can find information about the context object using help("ctx"). In our example, we use the ctx$iter attribute to print the iteration number for each training batch.

Next steps

In this article you learned how to train your first model using Luz and the basics of customization using both custom metrics and callbacks.

Luz also allows more flexible modifications of the training loop described in vignette("custom-loop").

You should now be able to follow the examples marked with the ‘basic’ category in the examples gallery.